This is a finished study, or cartoon for Brown's painting The Last of England. His inspiration for the work came from the departure of his friend and fellow artist Thomas Woolner to Australia in 1852 and his own desperate thoughts of emigrating to India due to lack of recognition and commissions. The middle class couple who dominate the oval are portraits of Brown and his future wife Emma. This drawing was produced in December 1852 and it reveals that the composition was originally to be slightly more oval in shape with far fewer figures; only the reprobate, his mother, and the young woman with her arm round the straggly haired boy from the painting can be seen in this drawing. The name of the boat carrying the emigrants was altered from 'White Horse Lin[e] of Australi[a]' to the more symbolic 'Eldorado' in the painting. Emma's shawl also changed; she is seen here in a wide checked shawl. Unlike the final painting the man has no string attached to his hat. This was added to the painting at the insistence of Brown's dealer David Thomas White. According to his diary Brown took up the cartoon again in 1855, most likely with a view to selling it (Virginia Surtees, ed., 'The Diary of Ford Madox Brown,' p. 127).In 1855 September his dealer D. T. White, bought the finished painting along with this cartoon, before selling both on to the collector B. G. Windus (Mary Bennett in The Pre-Raphaelites, exh. cat., 1984, p. 125). The financial boost given by the sale of the two works ended Brown's notions of emigrating to India.LM

  • Purchased and presented by subscribers, 1906.
  • © Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery


Association Artist Organisation
Artist Ford Madox Brown -


Type Position(s) Method Date(s) Notes
Signature and date bottom right Handwritten 1852 Pencil


Catalogue No. Venue Date(s)
The Exhibition of 'Work' and other Paintings by Ford Madox Brown
71 191 Piccadilly, London 1865 - 1865
Pre-Raphaelite Drawings
40 \sl240\slmult0Roland, Browse & Delbanco, London 1947-09 - 1947-09
Pre-Raphaelite Drawings
5 Cambridge Arts Council Gallery 1953-05-16 - 1953-10-24
5 Norwich Assembly Rooms 1953-05-16 - 1953-10-24
5 Hatton Gallery, Newcastle Upon Tyne 1953-05-16 - 1953-10-24
Some Pre-Raphaelite Paintings and Drawings
6 National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth 1955-07 - 1955-08
6 Glynn Vivian Art Gallery, Swansea 1955-10 - 1955-10
English Eye I
4 Midlands Federation Travelling Exhibition 1958-02-01 - 1958-02-01
Pre-Raphaelite Art
4 National Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide 1962-03 - 1962-03
4 Western Australian Art Gallery, Perth 1962-04 - 1962-05
4 The Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart 1962-06 - 1962-07
4 National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne 1962-07 - 1962-08
4 Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane 1962-08 - 1962-09
4 Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney 1962-10 - 1962-10
Ford Madox Brown 1821-1893
71 Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool 1964 - 1964
Pre-Raphaelite Drawings
- Portsmouth Art Gallery 1976-05-01 - 1976-05-29
4 Baden Baden 1979-01-01 - 1979-01-01
4 Frankfurt 1979-01-01 - 1797-01-01
The Pre-Raphaelites
178 Tate Gallery 1984-03-07 - 1984-05-28
Visions of Love and Life: Pre-Raphaelite Art from the Birmingham Collection, England
20 Seattle Art Museum 1995-03-09 - 1995-05-07
20 Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio 1995-05-27 - 1995-07-16
20 Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington 1995-08-11 - 1995-10-15
20 Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas 1995-11-04 - 1996-01-02
20 High Museum of Art, Atlanta, Georgia 1996-01-23 - 1996-04-10
20 Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery 1996-05-25 - 1996-09-29
Theodore Fontane und die Bildende Kunst
32 National Gallery, Berlin 1998-09-01 - 1998-11-29
32 Munich 1998-12-07 - 1999-03-09
Sunday in the Backwoods
- Wolverhampton Art Gallery 2003-07-26 - 2003-09-06
Ford Madox Brown: The Unofficial Pre-Raphaelite
30 Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery 2008-08-27 - 2008-12-14


Author(s) Date(s) Publisher Pages
The Exhibition of 'Work' and other Paintings by Ford Madox Brown
Ford Madox Brown 1865 privately published by the artist p. 22
City of Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery: Catalogue of the Permanent Collection of Drawings
A E Whitley 1939 Bemrose & Sons, Ltd., DerbyBirmingham Museum & Art Gallery p. 42; repr. p. 427
Pre-Raphaelite Drawings
1947 Roland, Browse & Delbanco, London p. 11
Pre-Raphaelite Drawings and Watercolours
1953 Arts Council of Great Britain, London p. 6
Some Pre-Raphaelite Paintings and Drawings
1955 Arts Council of Great Britain, Welsh Committee p. 8
Pre-Raphaelite Art
1962 The State Art Galleries of Australia p. 10
Ford Madox Brown 1821-1893
1964 Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool p. 31
An annotated edition of the Diary and selected Letters of Ford Madox Brown 1850-1870
Deborah Cherry 1977 - p. 272
The Pre-Raphaelites
1984 Tate Gallery, London p. 255; repr. p. 255
The Diary of Ford Madox Brown
Virginia Surtees 1985 Yale University Press, New Haven and London for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art p. 153
Visions of Love and Life: Pre-Raphaelite Art from the Birmingham Collection, England
Stephen Wildman 1995 Art Services International, Alexandria, Virginia p. 113; repr. p. 115
Fontane und die Bildende Kunst
Claude Keisch, Moritz Wullen, Peter-Klaus Schusler 1998 National Gallery, Berlin cat. no. 32
Men at Work: Art and Labour in Victorian Britain
2005 Yale University Press pp. 32-34 ff.; repr. p. 33
Ford Madox Brown: The Unofficial Pre-Raphaelite
Laura MacCulloch, Tessa Sidey 2008 D. Giles Limited, London p. 55-56, 67; repr. p. 18

Associated people

Name Type
Ford Madox Brown Depicted
Emma Madox Brown Depicted

Associated places

Name Type
Dover, Kent, England Depicted

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